“Don’t make the body do what the spirit does best, and don’t put a big load on the spirit that the body could easily carry.”
― Jalâl ad-Dîn Rûmî

Since the 17th century, it has been assumed that we have a mind and that the body and mind were two separate entities with different characteristic beings. The concept that the mind would exist outside of the body and that the body couldn’t think was presented and supported by Cartesian dualism and Rene Descartes. The problem was how a non-physical entity such as a mind could influence a physical body and impact how it acted and made decisions. “The problem comes about once you really consider what the implications are of believing that minds are not physical objects and that they do still somehow or other influence the physical object that is our brain in order to get our bodies to do what they do.” The questions with that claim resulted from the fact that was not possible that a non-physical or a non-matter or energy to influence a physical body. “So, if a mind is not physical and moves through physical objects, then how does the mind get the brain to react or act or to do anything, for that matter.” The proposed definition of mind was that it could aid in the processes of thinking, feeling, comprehending, and remembering.  All those characteristics, however, were best described by monism theories: materialism that affirmed the existence of things and their interactions in a physical body. 

“To limit one’s field of inquiry to the function of an institution in a given social system, with no alternatives considered, provides an infinite number of rationalizations for all the inequalities and inequities of that system.”
― Betty Friedan

Functionalism was the notion that in a certain state of mind, a function was to be defined as inputs and outputs or causes and effects“Functionalism in the philosophy of mind is the doctrine that what makes something a mental state of a particular type does not depend on its internal constitution, but rather on the way it functions, or the role it plays, in the system of which it is a part.” In other words, anything that could perform the same function could be the same as the subject discussed. For example, a table could be anything that had the function of holding things and preventing them to fall off the ground, and it could be as simple as plywood on a box that had that meaning, or a complex structure made of glass, metal, or printed with an organic #3D printer. It also could be made of different types of materials if it served the same purpose. The body, according to that position would be that if the effect was served, the cause could be anything, and it was shown that artificial organs could replace and have the function served in a human body: cornea implants, kidney machines, artificial hearts. “If thinking is simply the function performed by the brain, it might someday be possible to replace parts of the brain (maybe even the whole brain!) with artificial parts.” For the mind, according to that position, the function was the results we had after processing the information we gathered and recalled, and the outcome performed as speaking, feeling, or the actions we took. “The brain processes information gathered by the senses and stored in memory. The outputs of this processing include the things we say, think, and do. In effect, thinking is a form of computation. The mind is to the brain as software is to hardware.”

“As our body journeys through life, and life journeys on our body….life will leave marks on us too. From the creases of our wrinkles to the birthmarks on our bodies to the tattoos we decide to place.”
― Lauren Klarfeld

Our body was influenced by outside factors, and as everything that was made of organic matter, in time could stop performing the same functions as the tissues, organs and everything else that was made of it started to age and die. In the same way, a computer had an engineer that was able to put together all the parts to be able to execute future actions and a programmer that was able to create the software for all those actions to be performed and to have resulted from all those complexed mechanisms. The brain was studied by neurologists and analyzed its chemical structure, psychologists understood how to run it as a program, and humans, as the final user, could have a better understanding of how the process of thinking was happening. In order words, if there was anything that led to a deficiency of thinking or an inability of processing the same actions, someone in that chain could help us fix the problem and restore the function of the brain to work at full capacity as proposed. The ability to replace any of the defective organs and find a substitute that could perform the same functions would give them a chance for humans to live longer and reduce the discomfort, pain or other deficiency experienced. Those actions would be possible in 3 steps:” Step 1: Figure out how we do X, or alternatively, how anything at all could do X, and write out a detailed explanation of your discovery. Step 2: Convert the detailed explanation from Step 1 into an algorithm or program. Step 3: Load the program onto a computer and run it.”

Turing felt that computers could be programmed to attain abilities like human intelligence. Turing suggested an ‘imitation game,’ in which a human and a computer would be interrogated in situations where the interrogator would not know which was which, with communication done entirely through textual exchanges, as part of his thesis. Turing claimed that it would be ridiculous not to name the machine intelligent if the interrogator could not tell them apart via questioning. Turing’s “imitation game” has become known as “the Turing test” for intelligence. Conclusion after the Turing test, if a robot could act like a human, also a human could use components of androids. 

“. . . we are souls. We have bodies, which are just temporary houses for our souls. . .The body is a container.”
― Anton Treuer,

There were people who believed that humans were nothing more than highly complicated biological machines and that humans were not fundamentally different from organic computer devices. When a computer acted so much like a person that most people couldn’t tell it was a computer, we will know that humans did not have a non-physical mind or soul, but that we were hydro-carbon living forms with complex information processing units (Brains) capable of behavior suggesting awareness. 

However other theories supported their ideas that a human possed a body and a mind as separate substances that somehow interacted with each other. The idea of dualism stated that existed the mind, ego, and self. “That there is in the human being an entity that exists and yet is not physical but occupies or associates with the physical body.” In that instance, the non-physical mind interacted with a physical body, which was described as the dualism–interactionism concept. Those who accepted that theory argued that the mind lacked spatial characteristics, thus there was no need to place it in a physical space, and that it was subject to certain rules that caused it to exist. Furthermore, the substances did not have to be the same to interact, and there was evidence that they were interacting. Another assertion supported the concept that those chemicals, which were two separate substances, could direct energy without the inclusion of any extra one. Those concerns were still being explored, and without proof and explanation regarding the interaction of a non-physical material with a physical body, it was difficult to sustain those views. 

Another theory that had flaws and was no more applicable was idealism which stated that things were composed of sensible properties and matter. However, if the practical things were eliminated what was left was only the matter that had no properties as its own, therefore, as Berkeley concluded, “a thing is nothing more than its sensible properties.” The example for the theory was that if someone placed one hand in a bucket of hot water and the other one in cold water when both hands were placed in a bucket with room temperature water, what was felt was only the sensation in the mind, only the idea not the things themselves. In conclusion, things must exist in the mind to be real. However, that theory raised a couple of questions, and it was intriguing how all the things appear to all of us if we did not perceive them how could still exist and how did we know that other minds existed? The way we perceived things, such as the color red, was because we all have thought that color was named that way, but if we never considered that statement, that would not make it real? All those observations led to a single answer for all the things that existed and that was God, that could explain all the things that happened. However, idealism would not function as an explanation of how mind and body interacted because of the absence of evidence for other minds and the lack of any perceptive faculty by which we could know God who was designed to fulfill other concerns.

“When your beauty blends with intelligence, you become invincible.”
― Utibe Samuel Mbom

To be able to understand how an organ works we had to perform and conduct experiments to reproduce the same one in an artificial form, and so far, scientists were able to do so for the cornea, kidneys, and heart. However, the problem appeared when the mind was the subject of the replacement, as it was impossible to build a computer that could write poems, tell jokes, or discover new theories. The problem was not that the computers would not be able to perform any of those tasks, but humans were not able yet to create that software that would perform the computer to do the purpose “it’s just that we aren’t yet smart enough to figure out how we, or anything at all, could manage to do X.”

Another objection to the theory was that computers were predictable, and humans were not, and their behavior couldn’t be anticipated as we were not able to know their next moves.  

Additional criticism stated that a computer could only perform as planned and we were not programmed, we chose what we were going to do. However, a computer program would perform its next actions based on the history input, but also humans based on their experiences and genetic makeup would react in a predictive way.  

Unlike cognitive scientists, philosophers, and others like Francis Crick, who co-discovered the structure of DNA, argued that considering the brain as a black box prevented genuine comprehension of consciousness or any other mental phenomena. Only by studying neurons and their interconnections could scientists develop fully scientific theories of consciousness, models like those that explained genetic information transfer via DNA.

Despite their excellent imitation of human behavior, computers lacked opinions, convictions, and consciousness, as well as the ability to desire. To match the activities of the human brain, they had first to be endowed with causal powers. With the Chinese room experiment, Searle claimed that computers were merely pre-programmed exploiters of syntax and that those characteristics were not equivalent to those required to produce intentionality. If a mobile robot could be launched and mixed up with Chinese speakers, its language would be adequately understood. Searle refuted that by claiming that whether a person was in a room or inside a robot he still couldn’t understand Chinese since he carried out the same procedures. He added that AI advocates unintentionally accepted their false assumption that cognitions were comparable to symbol handling, in accordance with their robot reply, because they argued that robots should not be inaccessible to experiences to be aware of their output.

“Like a battery, the human mind and body must be fully discharged to stretch their capacity.”
― Haresh Sippy

So far computer replacement for body parts were successfully developed by scientists, and it was expected to be found the replacement of the mind also. Technology evolved and improved in the past years, and more things were discovered, so it was possible that even things that were hard to predict to be found in the future.  

This was proved as not being a true statement as in fact, humans were predictable due to their nature of habit and daily routine, and computers had “bugs” that were hard to prevent and eliminate. There were now studies made in China that observed the behavior of people and based on their previous actions and certain moves they could be scanned and targeted as possibly dangerous because their present comportment anticipated future actions.  Therefore, unpredictable humans proved that their actions could be anticipated, controlled, and manipulated through sensorial perception, repetition, and induced ideas through mass media, social media, or different apps and gadgets. 

Humans could be influenced by external factors and our next moves could be predicted the same as a computer based on past experiences. However, our belief system based on experiences was the one that created the reality, and in case our theories changed our actions would not be anticipated the same way. To change our beliefs was necessary a different approach to the situation, a wider perspective of the world, and an accumulation of knowledge that could permit us to act and react not based on past experiences but based on values and truth.  

The discoveries of DNA changed the way scientists approached the subjects like comprehension of consciousness or any other mental phenomena, and that was explained based on neurological characteristics. However, it was still possible that the theory of functionalism to apply in the future as more discoveries would be made, and in the same way, it was found that a heart or a kidney could be replaced by a silicon-based organ, we could be able to have also neurons based on the same substances.  

 In case the point above could become possible, then also a robot that could imitate human behavior, computers could be able to have opinions, convictions, and consciousness, as well as the ability to desire based on artificial neurons and brains.  

“The human mind and body are truly extraordinary. They are the quintessence of excellence in motion. We talk, touch, see, hear, taste, smell, and feel. We dream, aspire, and become. All that we are is mind and body and spirit—that is our universe.”
― Lorii Myers

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